This project deals with the different concepts of national identity (nationalism, patriotism, civic and ethnic citizenship). The analytical interest focuses on the determinants at the individual and contextual level that influence attitudes to national identity over time. In addition, democracy-relevant consequences of national identity are also examined. The project is based on both a Large-N comparison as well as on detailed analyses of Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The doctoral thesis of Steffen Wamsler is embedded in this project.