Energy and Climate Change Policies

Same, same but different? Multiplex networks in Swiss and German Climate Mitigation Policy


This project disentangles the complexity of climate policy making by analyzing and comparing different climate networks in Switzerland and Germany.

Mitigating climate change is a complex policy problem. Sources of harmful greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be found in almost all societal and economic sectors. Likewise, the group of polluters is diverse ranging from industry enterprises to the individual. Effective climate policies must be designed to cope with this diversity in target groups.


Prof. Dr. Karin Ingold
Tel.: +41 31 684 53 60


Prof. Dr. Karin Ingold
Dr. Marlene Kammerer

Project partners

Tuomas Ylä-Anttila (University of Helsinki), Lena Schaffer (University of Lucerne), Keiichi Satoh (University of Helsinki)
Funding SNSF
Project duration September 2020 – August 2024

Project website



Hence, when formulating and implementing climate policy, the responsible decision-makers necessarily coordinate with a wide range of stakeholders like administrative entities from different sectors, political parties, interest groups, civil society organization, or scientific institutions. These actors participate in different formal political events (e.g. hearings, votes, committee meetings), informal meetings, express their opinions publicly in the press, or actively launch political initiatives to advocate for their interests and to coordinate their activities with likeminded alters. In this project, we aim to disentangle this complexity by identifying the stakeholders, analyzing their beliefs and interests, and studying factors that influence their coordination behavior at the different arenas of policymaking. Moreover, we go a step further and compare if, how and why political actors behave differently at different policy arenas, i.e. pursue divergent coordination strategies, form deviant alliances, or even adjust their beliefs. To study the drivers of coordination in such a complex policy-setting, we investigate multiplex networks that comprise different relations (e.g. information, collaboration, resource exchange) for the same set of actors. To this end, we use different types of data sources and methods like surveys, interviews, or document and media analysis. With Switzerland and Germany we selected two countries that are similar in their political system and policy subsystem, but different in the larger socio-economic structure. Based on its findings, the project will give practical evidence about joint problem understanding or how to bring diverse stakeholders around one table, what might enhance climate policy coordination at the domestic level. This should then finally translate in effective and efficient solutions to tackle the climate change dilemma.

Related publications:

  • Kammerer, M.; Crameri, F.; Ingold, K. (2020). Das Klima und die EU: Eine Diskursperspektive auf die deutsche und schweizerische Klimapolitik. In: The European Social Model under Pressure – Liber Amicorum in Honour of Klaus Armingeon, ed. R. Careja, P. Emmenegger and N. Giger. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-27043-8_34.
  • Kammerer, M.; Ingold, K. (2019). Connectivity between international and national policymaking: The Impact of Climate Summits on Swiss National Policymaking. ECPR General Confernce, Wroclav, Poland, 2019.
  • Kammerer, M. (2018). Climate Politics at the Intersection between International Dynamics and National Decision-making: A Policy Network Approach. Dissertation. Zurich: University of Zurich.